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A line following robot using a video camera as the only sensor with binary image and video output.

by Juan Carlos Sanchez of Barcelona Spain

A custom PCB was designed to house the Ubicom SX52 and SX28 chips.

Functions of the SX52:

Functions of the SX28AC/SO:

Source Code

The main portion of the source code is posted below. It is the code to store the data, calculate deviation between the line center and the main center and send the correction data to the SX28 in order to follow the line.

Sample of Code

;**********************************************************************
; *
; Filename: Hermes I *
; Date: Enero/2003-Mayo/2003 *
; File Version: 4.10 *
; *
;**********************************************************************
; *
; Notes: This program convert a video Image in a binary image, *
; save it in a Sram (AS7C1024), calculate the deviation *
; between the line and the memory center and send the *
; corrections speeds to a SX28 to generate the proper *
; pwm`s *
; *
;********************************************************************** 

device SX52,oschs3

In_Odd_Even	= RA.1
In_Vsync 	= RA.2
In_Csync 	= RA.3
Video 		= RA.4
Sincro 		= RA.5

Sw_ON 		= RC.4
WE 		= RC.5
OE 		= RC.6
Ram_Bit 	= RC.7

RAM_X 		= RD
RAM_Y 		= RE

RESET Start

ORG $00
org $0A

RamX_Center 	ds 1 
Valor 		ds 1 
Divisor 	ds 1
Resultado 	ds 1 
Delaycont 	ds 1 
Counter 	ds 1
  
org $10 

Puntos 		= $ 		;bank0 variables
Flag_P1 	ds 1
Ini_P1 		ds 1
End_P1 		ds 1
Flag_P2 	ds 1
Ini_P2 		ds 1
Fin_P2 		ds 1
Centro_P1 	ds 1
Centro_P2 	ds 1
Line_Center 	ds 1
Desviation 	ds 1
Speed 		ds 1

Start

	MODE 	$0F 		;Set Mode to allow Direction configuration 
	MOV 	!ra,#%10001111 	;Set port A 
	MOV 	!rb,#%00000000 	;Set port B
	MOV 	!rc,#%10011100 	;Set port C 
	MOV 	!rd,#%00000000 	;Set port D
	MOV 	!re,#%00000000 	;Set port E 
	MODE 	$0E 		;Set Mode to allow Pull-Up Resistor configuration
	MOV 	!ra,#%00000000 	;Set pull up resistors 
	MOV 	!rb,#%00000000 	;Set pull up resistors 
	MOV 	!rc,#%00000000 	;Set pull up resistors 
	MOV 	!rd,#%00000000 	;Set pull up resistors 
	MOV 	!re,#%00000000 	;Set pull up resistors 

bank Puntos 
	MOV 	RamX_Center,#$7F ;Define Reference Ram center

	JMP Main

;************************************************************************************************************
;************************************ SUBRUTINAS PAGINA 0 *****************************************
;************************************************************************************************************

;This routine send the binari image to a 256x256 bytes ram memory in binari format and just the odd frame
;in order to use the even frame to calculate speeds, desviations, etc. and draw its in the memory and don`t 
;loose pictures

Save_Image

Next_003 
	JB In_Odd_even,Next_003 	;Wait the Odd Frame 
Next_004 
	JB In_Vsync,Next_004 		;Wait the Sart of the frame 
	CALL Image_Center_Y 		;Sincronize the Start of the capture in Y
	CALL Store_Ram 			;configure ram enables and port C bits to save data
Next_005 
	JB In_Csync,Next_005 		;Wait the H sinc
	CALL Wait_Sync
	CALL Image_Center_X 		;Sincronize the Start of the capture in X
Next_006 
	CLRB 	WE			;start to store the binari image
	JB RA.7,Next_007 		;in comparator data
	CLRB 	Ram_Bit
	JMP Next_008
Next_007 
	SETB 	Ram_Bit 
	NOP
Next_008 
	NOP
	SETB 	WE
	INCSZ 	RAM_X 			;check the end of the ram memory in X
	JMP Next_006
	INC 	RAM_Y
Next_009 
	CJNE RAM_Y,#$C8,Next_005 	;check the end of the ram memory in Y
Next_010 
	CALL Black_Pixel 		;55 lines at the end always in black to draw speeds
	INCSZ 	RAM_X
	JMP Next_010
	INC 	RAM_Y
	CJNE RAM_Y,#$FF,Next_010 	;end of the capture
	RET 

;This routine search the ram and locate 2 points, start and end point of the line

Search_Center 

	CALL Read_Ram 			;configure ram enables and port C bits to read data 
	MOV 	RAM_Y,#$3F 		;move the pointer to the line to search
Next_019 
	JB Ram_Bit,Next_022 		;Search the line start 
	INC 	RAM_X
	CJE RAM_X,#$FF,Next_020 	;Check no line and jump to stop motors 
	JMP Next_019
Next_020 
	MOV 	Speed,#$00 
	SETB 	RA.6 			;stop left motor
	MOV 	RB,Speed
	nop
	CLRB 	RA.6 			;stop right motor
	RET
Next_022 
	MOV 	Ini_P1,RAM_X 		;store the Start point

Next_023 
	JNB Ram_Bit,Next_025 		;Search the line end 
	INC 	RAM_X
	CJE RAM_X,#$FF,Next_025
	JMP Next_023
Next_025 
	MOV 	End_P1,RAM_X 		;store the line end point
	RET


See also:


file: /Techref/scenix/lib/io/dev/cam/linefollow.htm, 5KB, , updated: 2004/6/9 12:03, local time: 2019/9/20 17:44,
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